Do immigrant workers crowd out native ones? How do specific changes in U.S. immigration policy affect scientific and engineering labor markets? Why do foreign-born students and workers who stay in the U.S. decide to stay? How do these considerations vary across scientific fields? This grants supports the work of professors John Bound and Sarah Turner to build well?specified, carefully estimated, and policy-relevant models of how the supply of and demand for scientists and engineers in the U.S. adjust in a global context. Within this comprehensive framework, they will investigate and quantify given factors such as U.S. immigration policies, economic conditions in foreign countries, and U.S. market conditions for tertiary education as these interact with observed factors such as wages, unemployment rates, and flows between specialties in domestic labor markets for scientists and engineers.