This grant supports a series of research projects coordinated by researchers at the National Bureau of Economic Research examining the distributional and efficiency tradeoffs and implications of U.S. energy policy. Sixteen researchers will carry out eight different studies that will look at a variety of interrelated issues, including whether the energy reductions achieved by current policies could be obtained at lower cost, how the costs of current energy policies are distributed across and within different income groups, and whether and to what extent these burdens could be upset by additional tax and transfer policies. Policies to be examined include vehicle and appliance efficiency standards, renewal energy subsidies, electric and hybrid automobile purchasing subsidies, and green building codes. The resulting research papers will be published in a special peer-reviewed issue of the Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. Though the papers concern U.S. energy policies and will have obvious relevance to environmentalists and policymakers, the focus of each will be strictly empirical. No policy recommendations will be made.