Public sector and private sector employees experience what appear to be distinctly different routes from full-time employment to full-time retirement. This grant funds research by North Carolina State University’s Robert Clark and Harvard’s Joseph Newhouse that will compare the retirement paths of public and private workers and assess how working conditions, retirement benefits, and government regulations impact the age of retirement and the likelihood of working after retirement. Clark and Newhouse will commission 16 research studies that will examine the impact of pensions, health policies, employment rules, and government programs and regulations on the timing of when older workers leave their jobs, their potential for working after retirement, and how these differ for public and private sector employees. The research will be carried out in two waves, with eight projects and a capstone research conference for each wave.?